Up to the beginning of the 20th century, the prevailing view was that the universe was of infinite dimensions, and that it had existed and would continue to exist for ever. According to this view, known as the Static Universe Model, there was no question of the universe having any beginning or an end.

This perspective, which represents the basis of materialist philosophy, regarded the universe as being a stable, fixed and unchanging accumulation of matter, while denying the existence of any Creator.

In these days, the threshold of the 21st century, modern physics has proven, with many experiments, observations and calculations, that the universe had a beginning and was created in a single moment with an explosion known as the Big Bang.

In addition, it has been established that contrary to materialist claims, the universe is not fixed and stable, but is rather in a constant state of flux and change, and is also expanding. These facts are today accepted by the scientific world.

Hoimar Von Ditfurth is a German Professor of Neurology and a well-known evolutionist science writer:

To put it another way, scientists encountered phenomena suggesting that the universe had a beginning.

This idea seemed so revolutionary, or unscientific to put it in other terms, or odd, a word beloved of many scientists, that a number of concepts and opinions were put forward in order to avoid the striking conclusion that would be reminiscent of those in ancient myths and religions. We are not going to discuss these often complex concepts and universal models here. Because as stated at the beginning, we consider that the American Penzias and Wilson’s discoveries represent a final answer to this question. The universe did indeed have a beginning. 389

Anthony Flew is a British philosopher known for several decades as an atheist but who later expressed his views in favor of theism:

Notoriously, confession is good for the soul. I will therefore begin by confessing that the Stratonician atheist has to be embarrassed by the contemporary cosmological consensus. For it seems that the cosmologists are providing a scientific proof, that the universe had a beginning. So long as the universe can be comfortably thought of as being not only without end but also without beginning, it remains easy to urge that its brute existence, and whatever are found to be its most fundamental features, should be accepted as the explanatory ultimates. Although I believe that it remains still correct, it certainly is neither easy nor comfortable to maintain this position in the face of the Big Bang story. 390

Dennis Sciama is a scientist who, together with Fred Hoyle, spent many years defending the fixed universe theory. In Stephen Hawking’s words:

Defending the steady-state theory alongside Fred Hoyle for years, Dennis Sciama described the final position they had reached after all the evidence for the Big Bang theory was revealed. Sciama stated that he had taken part in the heated debate between the defenders of the steady-state theory and those who tested that theory with the hope of refuting it. He added that he had defended the steady-state theory, not because he deemed it valid, but because he wished that it were valid.

Fred Hoyle stood out against all objections as evidence against this theory began to unfold. Sciama goes on to say that he had first taken a stand along with Hoyle but, as evidence began to pile up, he had to admit that the game was over and that the steady-state theory had to be dismissed. 391

Stephen W. Hawking is a British theoretical physicist and Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge:

Why should the Universe be in a state of high order at one end of time, the end that we call the past? Why is it not in a state of complete disorder at all times? After all, this might seem more probable. And why is the direction of time in which disorder increases the same as that in which the Universe expands? One possible view is that God simply chose that the Universe should be in a smooth and ordered state at the beginning of the expansion phase. We should not try to understand why, or question His reasons because the beginning of the Universe was the work of God. But the whole history of the Universe could be said to be the work of God. 392

Don N. Page is Professor of Physics at the University of Alberta:

There is no mechanism known as yet that would allow the Universe to begin in an arbitrary state and then evolve to its present highly ordered state. 393

Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy is a biologist at Hacettepe University and specializes in zoogeography:

Today, however, we know that infinite time and infinite space belong to God, that the universe is finite…394

Hoimar Von Ditfurth:

We cannot know what there was before this point and at its beginning. That is a sphere closed to science. Even the question of why there was a beginning is unanswerable. In addition, the questions of the origins of the first structure of the initial matter, hydrogen, its characteristics, and what gave rise to that hydrogen, are all parts of this mystery. 395

Leonard Huxley is a biographer and writer, and Elder Professor of Physics in the University of Adelaide:

. . . “creation” in the ordinary sense of the world, is perfectly conceivable. I find no difficulty in conceiving that, at some former period, this universe was not in existence; and that it made its appearance in six days . . . in consequence of the volition of some pre-existing Being. 396

Dennis Sciama

Prof. Fred Hoyle is a British astronomer and a mathematician at Cambridge University:

The Big Bang theory holds that the universe began with a single explosion. Yet as can be seen below, an explosion merely throws matter apart, while the Big Bang has mysteriously produced the opposite effect—with matter clumping together in the form of galaxies. 397



389 Hoimar Von Ditfurth, Dinozorların Sessiz Gecesi 1 (The Silent Night of the Dinosaurs), p. 56.
390 Henry Margenau, Roy Abraham Vargesse, Cosmos, Bios, Theos, La Salle II: Open Court Publishing, 1992, p. 241.
391 Stephen Hawking, Evreni Kucaklayan Karinca, Alkim Kitapcilik ve Yayincilik, 1993, pp. 62-63.
392 Stephen W. Hawking, “The Direction of Time,” New Scientist, Vol. 115, 9 July 1987, p. 47.
393 Don N. Page, “Inflation Does Not Explain Time Asymmetry,” Nature, Vol. 304, July 7, 1983, p. 40.
394 Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalıtım ve Evrim [“Heredity and Evolution”], p. 21.
395 Hoimar Von Ditfurth, Dinozorların Sessiz Gecesi 3 [“The Silent Night of the Dinosaurs 3”], p. 7.
396 Leonard Huxley, Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley, MacMillan, 1938, Vol.1. p. 241.
397 Fred Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe, London, 1984, pp. 184-185.

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